January 17, 2024

What are Electrolytes?


Electrolytes are vital minerals present in blood, sweat, and urine. They have an electric charge and play a crucial role in various body functions. Common electrolytes include sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, along with bicarbonate, chloride, and phosphate.

They have a huge role in optimal health and performance beyond just hydration.

They play a critical role in maintaining the balance of fluids between the intracellular (inside the cell) and extracellular (outside the cell) environments (REF).

This balance is crucial for the functioning of many bodily processes, including muscle contraction and the transmission of nerve impulses, which are essential for heart function, muscle movements, and neurological processes. 

Electrolytes are pivotal in regulating the body's hydration levels and are integral to the acid-base balance that is vital for normal cellular activities. 

In this article, we will delve deeper into the science and application of electrolytes. 

We'll explore -

  • Their key roles in the body
  • The effects of electrolyte imbalances
  • How to maintain a healthy balance through diet and supplementation
  • Requirements for daily hydration and supporting exercise performance

By understanding the significance of electrolytes, you can better appreciate their role in keeping you healthy and how to manage their levels to optimise your physical and mental performance.

What are Electrolytes?

Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, dissociate into ions, making the solution capable of conducting electricity. This property is fundamental to understanding the definition and characteristics of electrolytes, and their significance, especially in the context of the human body and hydration.

Electrolytes in Chemistry

When a compound, typically a salt, acid, or base, dissolves in water, it splits into small, electrically charged particles known as ions. These ions are either positively charged (cations) or negatively charged (anions). For example, common table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) when dissolved in water, dissociates into sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-). These free-moving ions enable the solution to conduct electricity, a characteristic trait of electrolytes.

Definition and Characteristics

Electrolytes are thus defined as substances that produce ions when dissolved in a solvent like water. Their key characteristics include their ability to conduct electricity, regulate fluid balance, and maintain a charge balance both inside and outside of cells. The presence of these ions in body fluids is crucial for various physiological functions (REF).

Relevance to the Human Body and Hydration

In the human body, electrolytes are vital for numerous functions. They help regulate nerve and muscle function, hydrate the body, balance blood acidity and pressure, and help rebuild damaged tissue. 

The body's hydration level is intricately linked with electrolytes. They ensure that the right amount of water is maintained within cells, blood plasma, and bodily fluids. This balance is critical for the proper functioning of our biological systems (REF).

Electrolytes in the Human Body

Let's explore the key electrolytes, their roles in the body, and their recommended daily intake (REF).

Sodium (Na+)

Sodium is essential for fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction. It plays a pivotal role in regulating blood pressure and volume. The recommended daily intake of sodium is less than 2,300 milligrams for adults, but this can vary depending on age, health status, sweat rate and physical activity levels.

Potassium (K+)

Potassium is vital for heart function, muscle contraction, and maintaining a healthy nervous system. It also helps regulate fluid balance and blood pressure. The recommended daily intake for potassium is around 3,500-4,700 milligrams for adults.

Calcium (Ca2+)

Calcium is well-known for its role in building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. It's also crucial for blood clotting, muscle contraction, and nerve signaling. Adults generally require about 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day, though this can increase for older individuals.

Magnesium (Mg2+)

Magnesium supports over 300 enzymatic reactions, including energy creation, protein formation, and muscle movements. It also plays a role in nervous system regulation. The recommended daily intake of magnesium is 400-420 milligrams for men and 310-320 milligrams for women.

As we will cover later, a large number of electrolyte products will contain very small amounts of magnesium. MARCHON Performance Hydration contains 100mg of magnesium malate to help you get closer to optimal levels. 

Chloride (Cl-)

Chloride, often found in salt alongside sodium, helps maintain fluid balance and is essential for producing stomach acid (hydrochloric acid). The recommended daily intake is about 2,300 milligrams for adults, but this can vary based on individual needs and health conditions.

Phosphate (HPO4^2-)

Phosphate is important for the formation of bones and teeth. It's involved in energy production, muscle function, and the formation of DNA and RNA. Adults should aim for about 700 milligrams of phosphate per day.

Functions of Electrolytes

Electrolytes are key for hydration, maintaining fluid balance through osmosis, and preventing dehydration. They are crucial during exercise for replenishing lost minerals and supporting muscle function.

MARCHON Performance Hydration contains a blend of essential electrolytes beneficial for exercise performance and hydration. In this section we will cover the role electrolytes play in hydration and performance.

Electrolytes and Hydration

Role of Electrolytes in Maintaining Fluid Balance: 

Electrolytes play a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance within the body. They help regulate the distribution of water in the intracellular and extracellular spaces. This balance is essential for proper cell function, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, and maintaining blood pressure. 

Osmosis and Water Regulation:

Osmosis is the process by which water moves across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration. In the body, this process helps regulate the concentration of electrolytes and ensure that the fluid levels inside and outside the cells are balanced. 

Electrolytes, particularly sodium and potassium, play a key role in this process by maintaining the osmotic pressure and regulating the movement of water across cell membranes.

Electrolyte Imbalance and Dehydration:

An electrolyte imbalance, often caused by excessive fluid loss from sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea, can lead to dehydration. 

When the body loses water and electrolytes, it disrupts the balance necessary for proper function of cells, tissues, and organs. This can result in symptoms such as dizziness, muscle cramps, and confusion.

Electrolyte Supplementation During Physical Activity:

During prolonged or intense physical activity, especially in hot environments, the body can lose significant amounts of electrolytes through sweat. In these situations, replenishing lost electrolytes is important for maintaining proper hydration and supporting muscle function. 

Athletes and individuals engaging in strenuous exercise may benefit from consuming electrolytes or foods to help replace the lost electrolytes and maintain fluid balance. 

MARCHON Performance Hydration contains a research backed blend of 750mg Sodium, 200g Potassium and 100g magnesium which helps with hydration as well as supporting exercise performance.

Other Functions of Electrolytes in the Body

As we mentioned earlier in the article, electrolytes provide support for health and performance beyond just hydration. Here are some of the other research backed benefits -

  • May improve aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance (REF, REF, REF, REF)
  • May help Increase strength and power output (REF, REF, REF, REF)
  • May support cognitive performance during exercise (REF, REF, REF)
  • May decrease muscle soreness (REF, REF)
  • Has been shown to decrease the perceived RPE of training (REF, REF)

Dietary Sources of Electrolytes

MARCHON Performance Hydration is a convenient way to boost your overall electrolyte levels, but you should ensure that your diet should provide the foundation of your electrolyte intake.

Natural Food Sources

Below is a list of foods with high concentrations of key electrolytes, detailing the amount of each electrolyte they contain and other notable health benefits.

Bananas (Potassium): A medium-sized banana contains about 422 milligrams of potassium. Bananas are also a good source of Vitamin B6 and fibre.

Spinach (Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium): One cup of cooked spinach offers about 157 milligrams of magnesium, 839 milligrams of potassium, and 245 milligrams of calcium. Spinach is also rich in iron and vitamins A and C.

Sweet Potatoes (Potassium, Magnesium): A medium sweet potato provides roughly 541 milligrams of potassium and 32 milligrams of magnesium. They are also high in vitamin A and fiber.

Yoghurt (Calcium, Potassium): A cup of plain, low-fat yogurt can contain up to 573 milligrams of calcium and 579 milligrams of potassium. Yogurt is also a great source of protein and probiotics.

Avocado (Potassium, Magnesium): One whole avocado has about 975 milligrams of potassium and 58 milligrams of magnesium. Avocados are also rich in healthy fats and fiber.

Nuts (Magnesium, Phosphate): Almonds, for instance, provide 80 milligrams of magnesium and 136 milligrams of phosphate per ounce. Nuts are also a good source of healthy fats and protein.

Salmon (Sodium, Potassium, Phosphate): A 3-ounce piece of salmon contains about 50 milligrams of sodium, 326 milligrams of potassium, and 201 milligrams of phosphate. It's also rich in omega-3 fatty acids and protein.

Coconut Water (Potassium, Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium): 500ml of coconut water has about 600 milligrams of potassium, 75 milligrams of sodium, 60 milligrams of magnesium, and 58 milligrams of calcium. It's also a hydrating, low-calorie beverage.

These foods not only provide a rich source of electrolytes but also offer various other nutrients that are beneficial for overall health. Including a variety of these foods in your diet can help maintain a healthy balance of electrolytes.

Electrolyte Supplements

Electrolyte necessity largely depends on individual lifestyle, diet, and specific circumstances. 

Here are some key points to consider:

When Are Electrolyte Supplements Necessary?

  • Intense or Prolonged Physical Activity: Athletes or individuals engaging in long or high-intensity workouts, especially in hot conditions, lose electrolytes through sweat. Supplements can help replenish these lost electrolytes (REF).
  • High Sweat Rate: People who naturally sweat more might require additional electrolytes to maintain balance (REF).
  • Dietary Deficiencies: Those whose diets lack sufficient electrolyte-rich foods may benefit from supplementation .
  • Health Conditions: Certain medical conditions (like kidney disorders) or medications that affect electrolyte balance may necessitate supplementation (REF).

Are They Necessary for Everyone?

  • General Population: Most people can maintain electrolyte balance through a balanced diet. Foods like fruits, vegetables, nuts, and dairy are rich in electrolytes.
  • Specific Groups: Athletes, individuals with high physical activity levels (especially in hot gyms / humid countries), people that have a low salt intake, or those with specific health conditions may need additional electrolyte intake.

A word of caution is that your requirement for electrolytes may change through the year. In the summer months you may require more daily support rather than just around the times you train. 

If your training intensity increases and you find yourself doing sweatier workouts then you may require additional supplementation. 

Being aware of the signs and symptoms of electrolyte imabalcne and deficiency, which is covered later, is crucial.

Cautionary Considerations

  • Overdose Risks: Excessive intake of electrolytes, especially supplements, can lead to imbalances. For example, too much sodium can cause hypertension, and excess potassium can lead to hyperkalemia, affecting heart rhythm.
  • Balance is Key: It's important to maintain a balanced intake of all electrolytes. Overemphasis on one at the expense of others can lead to imbalances.

Why should you use MARCHON Performance Hydration?

The hydration market is diverse. MARCHON Performance Hydration distinguishes itself with a scientifically formulated blend. This blend is designed to address common issues often found in other hydration products:

  • Imbalance in Electrolyte Ratios: Many hydration products may not offer a well-balanced mix of essential electrolytes. MARCHON Performance Hydration is formulated to provide a balanced ratio of electrolytes, ensuring effective hydration and bodily function.
  • Specific Electrolyte Concentrations: The concentration of specific electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and magnesium is crucial. Some products may have high sodium but low magnesium, which is essential for muscle function and lost during sweating. MARCHON Performance Hydration aims to offer a more balanced approach.
  • Tailoring to Individual Needs: Generic hydration products might not account for individual variations in sweat rates and electrolyte loss. MARCHON's blend is designed considering these individual differences, aiming to provide a more personalized hydration experience.
  • Absorption and Efficacy: The choice of electrolyte forms (like magnesium malate over citrate) is intended to enhance absorption and efficacy, providing better support for exercise performance and recovery.
  • Comprehensive Benefits: Beyond hydration, the product is formulated to support various aspects of physical performance, including muscle function and energy metabolism.

In summary, MARCHON Performance Hydration focuses on delivering a scientifically backed, balanced blend of electrolytes, addressing common shortcomings in other hydration products and catering to a wide range of individual hydration needs.

Signs of Electrolyte Imbalance

Common Symptoms

Symptoms of electrolyte imbalance can vary depending on the severity and the specific electrolyte involved. Common symptoms include:

  • Agitation
  • Dry mouth and thirst
  • Restlessness
  • Confusion or difficulty with cognition
  • Muscle weakness or spasms
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Fatigue
  • Heart palpitations
  • Constipation
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Slow or irregular heart rate
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Low or high blood pressure
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Dark urine
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Seizures
  • Chest pain
  • Muscle cramping
  • Weakness
  • Confusion and irritability

It's important to seek medical attention if experiencing any of these symptoms, as electrolyte imbalances can have serious health consequences. 

Understanding the Causes of Electrolyte Imbalance

The causes of electrolyte imbalances include fluid loss from heavy exercise, vomiting, diarrhea, certain medications, alcoholism, heart failure, kidney disease, and eating disorders. It is advised to track your food intake for short periods to check if your diet provides adequate amounts of of these minerals and if not, supplementation may be useful.


Recap main points of the role of electrolytes in the human body.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

What are electrolytes, and why are they important?

Electrolytes are minerals in your body that have an electric charge. They are found in your blood, urine, and body fluids. Key electrolytes include sodium, potassium, calcium, bicarbonate, magnesium, chloride, and phosphate. These minerals help balance the amount of water in your body, balance your body's acid/base (pH) level, move nutrients into your cells, move wastes out of your cells, ensure that your nerves, muscles, the heart, and the brain work the way they should. 

How do electrolytes affect athletic performance?

For athletes or anyone that is training frequently, electrolytes are particularly important. They regulate nerve and muscle function, hydrate the body, balance blood acidity and pressure, and help exercise performance. During physical activities, the body loses electrolytes through sweat, particularly sodium and potassium, which can lead to electrolyte imbalances. This imbalance can cause muscle cramping, fatigue, nausea, and a reduction in cognitive function, all of which can negatively impact athletic performance. Maintaining electrolyte balance is crucial for anyone looking to improve their exercise performance.

Can I get enough electrolytes from food alone?

Yes, it's possible to get enough electrolytes from food alone. Most people can maintain their electrolyte balance through a normal diet. Foods rich in electrolytes include fruits and vegetables like bananas, oranges, and sweet potatoes, dairy products, and nuts. However, individuals with certain health conditions, those who train regularly, have a high sweat rate or those exposed to prolonged heat might need additional electrolyte intake. This is where supplementation may be beneficial.

What happens if I have too many electrolytes?

Having too many electrolytes, known as hypernatremia (high sodium) or hyperkalemia (high potassium), can be harmful. It can lead to dehydration, seizures and heart rhythm disturbances. This is usually due to excessive supplementation rather than excessive intake through foods.

Are electrolyte drinks better than water for hydration?

Electrolyte drinks can be better than water for hydration in certain circumstances, such as prolonged physical activity, excessive sweating, or heat exposure. They help replenish lost minerals more effectively than water. However, for regular daily hydration, water is usually sufficient. It is all about balance. Excessive consumption of electrolyte drinks when they're not needed can lead to an imbalance but drinking a lot of water without adequate electrolyte intake can also create an issue.

Can certain diets lead to electrolyte imbalance?

Yes, certain diets can lead to electrolyte imbalance. For instance, diets with excessive or too little salt can disrupt electrolyte balance. Diets lacking fruits and vegetables may put you at risk of low potassium and magnesium. Diets low in potassium or magnesium may also lead to imbalances, especially in athletes or those with certain health conditions.

What are the best natural sources of electrolytes?

The best natural sources of electrolytes are varied and include fruits like bananas, oranges, and watermelon; vegetables like spinach, sweet potatoes, and avocados; dairy products like milk and yogurt; nuts and seeds; and beans and lentils. These foods provide a balanced intake of different electrolytes, which is beneficial for maintaining overall health.